In this assignment, you will describe the plan for conducting proposed research or quality improvement project based on your initial inquiry, literature review paper, and article appraisals.

Proposed project

In this assignment, you will describe the plan for conducting proposed research or quality improvement project based on your initial inquiry, literature review paper, and article appraisals. Using complete sentences and APA format, complete your proposal according to the following criteria:

*You may provide your responses directly on the table below or in a narrative essay format complete with title page and reference list.

Criteria Your Response Points Possible
Research inquiry

Provide a few summary statements about what was found in the literature and how it applies to this proposed project (include in-text citations in APA format and a list of references)

Briefly state the purpose/rationale for this proposed project

What is your question?


Who is the population (nurses, patients, students etc.)

How is your population/sample to be recruited for the project?

Setting- Where will you recruit your population/sample


What are the ethical implications for the study?

How could any ethical implications be addressed/prevented/avoided?


What type of research/project? (qualitative, quantitative, mixed method?)

How will you go about collecting data/conducting the study?

What instrument/measurement tool will be used?

What are the expected findings?


What are the nursing implications for the proposed project and/or relevance of expected findings?


Who will be informed of the project/findings?

How would you go about informing others of the project results?

Total Possible /15

Quantitative Article Appraisal

Criteria Your Evaluation Points Possible
Article Citation in APA Format

Author(s), date, title, publisher, volume number, issue number, pages, may include retrieved from and hyperlink or DOI

Trettene AS, Maximiano TO, Beraldo CC de et al. (2018). Breastfeeding In Infants With Labiopalatine Cleft, Journal of Nursing, Vol 12, No 5, pp. 23-118.Available at/:… 2

What are the key terms in the abstract?

Are the key terms similar to your own search terms?

Is the journal peer reviewed and how do you know? (hint see journal main web page. May have to click on information for authors, or editorial review tab)

Key Terms

Aleitamento Materno; Enfermagem; Fissura labial; and Fissura palatine

The key terms are similar to my own search items and address critical issues in regards to the tasks of breastfeeding in infants with labiopalatine cleft. The author indentify with the need to investigate the critical factors that are associated with the methodology of breastfeeding infants with cleft lip/palate. The journal was peer reviewed by the fact that it was listed among other peer reviewed articles of the Journal of Nursing. The editorial review tab also reveals that the article was reviewed by other scholars implying the findings of the article to be scholarly and academic. The findings of the article would be useful in the process of reporting on the critical factors that influence the methodology for adoption in breastfeeding infants with cleft lip/palate who need special care.


Does the introduction include the purpose of the study?

Does the introduction include a theoretical framework?

Is the literature reviewed?

Are the independent/dependent variables defined?

What are the independent/dependent variables?

What is the research question/hypothesis?

The introduction section provides clear objective of the investigative study on breastfeeding methodology for infants with labiopalatine cleft. The objective outlined is that of identifying the critical factors associated with adherence to breastfeeding in infants with cleft lip and / or palate.

Yes, the introduction has a theoretical framework with a background of the challenges of breastfeeding of children with cleft have among mothers as outlined in the previous studies. The article outlines that past studies have evidenced strategies developed by parents and caregivers to feed children with clefts have been characterized by adaptive processes in the face of feeding problems. Previous study findings reveal that the rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the population fall short of what is recommended.

The variables of the study are revealed. The independent variable is breastfeeding in infants with cleft lip and / or palate as it relates to adhesion. The dependent factors are the different variables that would affect adhesion during breastfeeding among infants with cleft lip and/or palate.

The research question was, “Identify and discuss the factors associated with adherence to breastfeeding in infants with cleft lip and / or palate?

The knowledge established would contribute to the planning and implementation of strategies to promote future breastfeeding practice targeting these children.


What is the Quantitative study method? E.g. RCT, survey, cohort etc.

Are legal/ethical implications addressed (ALL have legal/ethical implications. Consider principles in the Belmont report and address 2 or more principles)

What is the sample?

What are the characteristics of the sample?

Does the article indicate who was excluded from the study?

What instruments were used in the study?

How did the researchers plan the analysis? (Did they use statistics?)

The study method involves the authors taking on a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in a public tertiary hospital located in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil.

The target population of the research were parents/care givers of the infants who were affected by the left clip/palate who had come alongside their children for nursing consultation prior to thequeiloplasty and/ or palatoplasty surgery.

The legal/ethical implications observed included seeking for permission from the hospital administrators to carry the study. Besides, the authors also asked for consent on the part of the target parents before asking them to participate in the study. The above process was important for the research was conducted through a questionnaire survey administered to parents during the preoperative Nursing consultation for the surgery of queiloplasty and / or palatoplasty. Use of the structured interview was conducted through the application of a questionnaire prepared by the authors with data regarding the receipt of information about breastfeeding received in the pre- and postnatal period, adherence to exclusive and non exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding time, as well as the factors associated with the non adherence of this practice; allowed detailed information to be collected.

The researchers planned well for the analysis through the use of structured questionnaire survey. The questionnaire survey form captured critical questions whose responses would be addressed in the analysis of data. Critical information that were collected includethe breastfeeding given to children in the pre- and postnatal period, the level of adherence to exclusive and non exclusive breastfeeding, the time and frequency of breastfeeding, as well as the factors linked to non adherence of this practice. These statistics as collected in the survey, as well as, other data from previous studies were used in the analysis process.


What were the findings?

Are statistically significant results reported?

The results indicated revealed that 31% (n = 38) of the infants observed were exclusively breastfed. Of these number, 25% (n = 10), were fed directly at the breast. In addition, the results indicated that the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was at 75 (±13) days. The main reason indicted for non-adherence to breastfeeding was ineffective sucking (n = 45, 37%).

Moreover, in relation to the characterization of infants regarding the classification of the cleft, the results indicated that the lip and palate predominated (n = 50, 41%). The research established that there was a positive association between being submitted to less complex clefts and adherence to breastfeeding (p <0.001). In this context, the incidence of breastfeeding in infants with cleft lip was greater (n = 25, 83%) as compared to the cases of children with lip and palate (n = 12, 24%) and isolated palatine (n = 7, 17%).The results are statistically significant for they explain the main factors leading to non-adherence to breastfeeding.


Was the research question answered?

What insights were uncovered by the research? What are the future implications?

The research question was effectively answered. The study makes clear of the significance of guidance on pre-natal breastfeeding in prenatal care among parents with children suffering from cleft lips. It became clear that the main reason for ineffective adherence to breastfeeding was ineffective sucking. Besides, lack of proper guidance from experienced practitioners on ways breastfeeding mothers could help these infants with cleft lip was also cited. Better adherence to breastfeeding and feeding practices were linked to the guidance provided by trained professionals as early as possible to the affected breastfeeding mothers. The future implications of the study is that Prenatal care is the best time to provide guidelines, which should be presented in a clear and objective way. Secondly, the shortage of trained professionals who promote adequate guidelines and training should be addressed. There is need for healthcare stakeholders to find means to reduce this shortage. 3

What is your overall impression? Was this a valid and useful study? (internal/external validity addressed)

Is the research applicable in the real world?

Are the findings applicable/ generalizable to other populations?

My overall impression of the study is that it is a good study. The study was not only valid but useful, especially in regards to explaining the factors associated with non-adherence to breastfeeding among mothers with children suffering from cleft lips. There was enough evidence that few infants were breastfed exclusively and for a period shorter than its medically recommended. The complexity of the lips cleft had a negative influence on the adherence to breastfeeding. The research is applicable in the real world by outlining the need for breastfeeding mothers with children who have cleft lips to seek help early from experts to promote adherence to breastfeeding. 5


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In this assignment you will describe the plan for conducting proposed research or quality improvement project based on your initial inquiry literature review paper and article appraisals.


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